Who are the “Scribes,” “Sanhedrin,” “Pharisees,” & “Sadducees” in the NT?


One thing has always puzzled me when moving from reading the Old Testament to the New Testament.  There seems to be an abrupt shifting of gears with regard to the political and social settings.  The backdrop of Jesus’ life in the Gospels involves characters like Scribes, Sanhedrin, Pharisees, and Sadducees.  However, these characters are almost completely absent from the landscape of the Old Testament.  So, what has happened?  How did we get all these new faces?  And who are they?

From the last events of the Old Testament (as described in Ezra & Nehemiah) and the final prophecy made by Malachi, to the unveiling events of the New Testament, there is about a 400 year gap.  Theologians often call this period “The Four Hundred Silent Years,” because God seemed to be silent, not communicating through his prophets (this era is called the “Second Temple Era” by the Jews).  But don’t let the absence of a prophet from God make you think that these 400 years were insignificant.  Their events created the scenery of the world in which Jesus was born, served, lived, died, rose, ascended from, and began to transform. 

Out of these 400 silent years came various groups of people who play a momentous role in the New Testament Gospel accounts.  Jesus confronts, rebukes, engages, impassions, and even submits in death to people who hold titles like “Scribe,” “Sanhedrin,” “Pharisees,” and “Sadducees.”  So, who are they?  It would be a mistake to lump them all together.  As you read the New Testament you see that Jesus understood in detail even the smallest differences between the groups.  In fact, his sometimes odd statements become clearer when we understand to whom he spoke—his audience (this is why one essential principle of biblical interpretation involves asking questions about the original audience).

After God allowed Babylon to destroyed Solomon’s Temple in 586 B.C. (2 Kg 25 & 2 Chr 36), the central focus for the Jew shifted from the Temple (sacrifice) to obedience to God’s Law (Torah), since the Temple no longer existed and sacrifices were impossible.  The Hebrews reasoned that since their failure to observe the Law of God was what got them into national disaster, therefore, its remedy would be careful observance of the Law.  And with this shift, the people’s focus and attention changed from being upon the priest (previously performing sacrifices), to the scribe (the one who best knows God’s commands).  So, with this swing in spotlight came the rise of new experts and leaders.  Here’s a breakdown in some of these leaders:

Scribes: These were the lawyers whose primary job was to copy the Scriptures.  Their focus became the details or the letter of the law.  They transitioned from mere copyists to teachers of the Scriptures (Ezra was a scribe, Neh 8:2-8).

Sanhedrin: This is the group of judges.  It was made up of a council of 70 Jewish men who were directly under the high priest.  They acted as the “supreme court” in legal/religious trials.  Some believe that this group began under the rule of King Jehoshaphat around 800 B.C. (2 Chr 19:4-11).

Pharisees: It is likely that this group evolved out of a priestly group of Jewish separatists during the Maccabean revolt.  The revolt began when certain Jewish priests refused to bow down to Antiochus Epiphanes, but sought to protect the right worship of God.  Jesus eventually criticized some of the Pharisees for their inflexible adherence to the “traditions of their fathers” rather than seeking God’s Word (Mt 15:14, 23:16).

Sadducees: This priestly group of religious leaders were functionally like the Pharisees.  However, the two groups hated one another, except when they found a common enemy (e.g., Jesus).  The primary ways the Sadducees differed from the Pharisees is (1) Sadducees rejected all Scriptures (Joshua—Malachi) besides the Torah (Gen-Deut), and (2) Sadducees rejected the belief in a future general resurrection of the body (Luke 20:27).

Anytime we pick up the Bible—in hopes of growing in intimacy with our God—we have a better chance of understanding what God is communicating if we have our finger on the pulse of the Bible’s cultural and political background.  Knowing the background allows us to accurately interpret the situations to which Jesus and the Apostles spoke.  In fact, it is the bridge to applying the original meaning of God’s Word then to us today.

Categories blog | Tags: | Posted on February 7, 2007

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  1. by Glass Lozano

    On February 9, 2007

    Facinating!! This was an answer to a question I had been researching.

    I wonder who Jesus would consider vipers dogs and devils today.


  2. by David Jonathan

    On July 11, 2010

    Why is it that you still refer to God as God and not Yahweh, which is His Name? And, Jesus whose real Name is Yashua. We have defamed God by using a common name ” God!” We have changed the name of Yahweh’s Son to Jesus instead of Yahshua, which even the angels announced was Hos Name. The letter “J” did not exsist until the 1500’s. Please, study and read up on the true facts. Your article is interesting.

    Thank you

  3. by Brent Cunningham

    On July 13, 2010

    David, you wrote,
    Q: “Why is it that you still refer to God as God and not Yahweh, which is His Name?” And, Jesus whose real Name is Yashua. We have defamed God by using a common name ” God!”

    A: I’m a bit puzzled why you’re suggesting that a Christian must in all cases use the name “Yahweh” when speaking to or about our God. (1) The Old Testament reflects several names for God in the Hebrew language (i.e., Elohim), used interchangeably though often times for different emphasis. Further, many Jews refused to even use the name YHWH (or Yahweh) because it was too sacred for common use, replacing it with a general word for God or Lord. Beyond that, we don’t even know exactly how to pronounce the divine name as it originally didn’t have vowel markings in the Hebrew—it’s only our best guess that gets us to “YaHWeH.” (2) Likewise, the New Testament writers like the Apostle Paul had no hesitation using the general name “God” (theos) to refer to Yahweh.
    So, David, I’m not too sure how you come to conclusion that either the ancient Hebrews or the writers of the New Testament are “defaming” Yahweh by using other biblical names for Him. My use of “Yahweh,” “Lord,” “God,” etc. is simply following the biblical model. I’d be pleased to have you clear this up some for me. Thanks for the comment, David.

  4. by Daniel Chandler

    On April 22, 2012

    “Anytime we pick up the Bible—in hopes of growing in intimacy with our God—we have a better chance of understanding what God is communicating if we have our finger on the pulse of the Bible’s cultural and political background. Knowing the background allows us to accurately interpret the situations to which Jesus and the Apostles spoke. In fact, it is the bridge to applying the original meaning of God’s Word then to us today.” Are you indicating here that the Bible does not apply to us today?

  5. by DeWayne

    On October 6, 2012

    Do you know why in more recent times so many have adopted the English word Jew/Jewish, for a people apparently during Christs ministry that were the House of Judah (as Judean, Judaean, and Judah). I have read that this English word did not exist in manuscript or bible before the 18th century, and is possibley a corruption of a Latin translation, of what word I am unsure.

  6. by Tope O

    On December 20, 2012

    Jesus condemned the scribes, Pharisees, Sanhedrin, and Sadducee, because of their hypocritical ways of life. Jesus love them but not their ways of life, hence He want us to learn from this. He said our righteousness must exceed theirs if we want to enter into heaven.

    Hello David, did you read in the book of Mathew 1:21 that His name shall be called Jesus, meaning savior?

  7. by Thiery

    On February 2, 2013

    I agree with Brent’s point. There is no need to deviate from what and how the early Christians including Paul referred to Y’hweh as ‘God’. Paul was one the significant people in the Bible chosen by God himself to spread the word and teachings about his Son Jesus in a way that was inclusive and not exclusive to the Gentiles who for hundreds of years had been excluded from the God of Isreal. As a former very strict Jew homself and well educated, he knew better that complicate who God is to the rest of the world. Using the simple but very significant name ‘God’ signifies that He is indeed the one and only true God and that he is above all other gods. That is why we also put a capital letter on the word God, to signify this truth and differentiate him from all other man-made gods out there.

    With the arrival of Jesus Christ, the Messiah and named Yeshua, all people for the first time have been able to come to the God of Israel as their one and only true God, above all other gods. Our reference to the son of God as Jesus (the Christ) is in reverence andhonour of who He is and what he is. He is Lord of all lords and He is the Saviour. The name, Jesus means ‘Jehovah is Saviour’ and because Jesus is part of the trinity, when he came to earth, he lived amongst us as God, before sitting on the right hand of the Father in heaven after dying and rising from the dead.

    We also see that through Jesus, the promise to Abraham was fulfilled of being the father of all nations one day. It is through this same Jesus, born out of the lineage of King David, one of Israel’s greatest kings, that each believer is adopted into the big family of God and is automatically a daughter and a son of father Abraham with all the privileges and promises made to all Abraham’s descendants. Also, as Apostle Paul taught, it’s through the same Jesus Christ that there is neither Jew or gentile in the eyes of God because we are all His children and (indirect or direct) descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

    For more on the name of Jesus and the significant meanings in both the holy books, the Torah and New testament, see also this article: http://carm.org/questions/about-jesus/jesus-name-immanuel-or-jesus

  8. by Roger

    On October 14, 2013

    Maybe the Scribes, Pharisees, Sanhedrin and Saducees only came seriously into being during the 400 “silent years” prior to the coming of Jesus. If their were no prophets to speak on behalf of God and to call people to repentence during those years, this group of people would have been aware of this fact and so the scribes began to record or to copy out existing scriptures (using also the oral tradition of the prophets) to ensure their continuance. They also embellished the scriptures somewhat with complicated additional laws. The pharisees were the preachers of the day and probably used the texts provided by the scribes, embellishments and all. Their revolt against Rome was much the same as the Maccabean revolt. They resented God being replaced by secular leaders. The Saducees ,as you say , rejected the principle of the resurrection, were only concerned with the first five books of the Bible, and were hostile to the pharisees except when it came to dealing with Jesus. Thank you for your valuable article. Roger

  9. by S. Jackson

    On November 24, 2013

    Why does the name YHWH not follow the same vowel markings as all the other translated Hebrew words?

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